As we know with the development of the world auto industry, the scrap vehicle tyres makes a significant contributions to the generation waste. It is estimated that an additional 2-3 billion scrap tyres are stockpiled on unregulated or abandoned piles throughout the US, a figure which represents the cumulative scrap tyre generation of approximately 10 years. With the development of the more and more serious pollution, many people are looking for the methods to deal with the waste tyre. The scrap tyres have been a serious problem of the environment. The increasing number of the waste rubber and tyre products has caused a serious environment problem and a waste of the energy. The phenomenon has been attached many importance by many governments. In the world many industrial countries have put in place a legal framework to address this issue. The most noticeable problem associated with the large tyres piles is the fire hazard they present. Once a tyre pile causes fire, it is very hard, if not impossible to, extinguish.Even in some places in the world the tyre piles have been burned for many years with black fumes being visible for many miles .Diseases such as encephalitis and dengue fever have also been reported around scrap tyre piles, particularly in areas with warmer climates which are an ideal breeding ground for disease-carrying mosquitoes. The impact of waste rubber products or waste tyre can be minimized by recycling or recovering the oil from the waste tyre.In the history the landfill is the main way to deal with the waste tyre. But this method is the worse method to deal with the waste tyre.For it will cause second pollution to the environment.
According to the survey, little percentage of the waste tyres is recycled. As of 1990, the established tyre and rubber industry used only around 2% recycled material. However, in the past decade the tyre recycling industry has experienced a tremendous growth, thanks to a legal framework requiring the safe disposal of scrap tyres, the avail ability of reliable size reduction technologies and the emergence of innovative, economically viable applications for recycled rubber.
Then here there is a chart showing the recycling rate in Europe and us:
Because of their high calorific value, waste tires have been used as fuel in rotary cement kilns. The high volatile carbon content and heating value·(33-35·MJ/kg) make the scrap tyres an excellent material to extract oil. Under this phenomenon, the pyrolysis is the better way to deal with the waste tyre. The pyrolysis offers a better way to decompose a wide range of wastes, including waste tyres. In the pyrolysis process,the organic volatile matter of tires (around 60 wt%) is decomposed to low molecular weight products, liquids or gases, which can be used as fuels or chemicals source. Compared with the thermal cracking of the waste tyre, the combustion of the waste tyre will generate electricity but at the same time the combustion will generate pollution to the environment. So the pyrolysis is the best way to deal with the waste tyre. The non-volatile carbon black and the inorganic components (around 40 wt %) remain as solid residues and can be recycled in other applications. Combustion of tires has been used also for generation of electrical energy. However, for minimizing emissions the conditions of the combustion process must be optimized.
While uncontrolled tyre fires cause substantial air and ground pollution, the incineration of whole tyres or tyre chips in industrial furnaces is environmentally safe. The calorific value of tyre-derived fuel (TDF) exceeds that of coal, while the sulphur content is in the same order of magnitude or even lower.
The use of TDF as a fuel supplement in cement kilns, paper mills or power plants is a perfectly reasonable use for scrap tyres, if the safe disposal of large amounts of scrap tyres is the primary objective. However, a closer look at the energy invested into the production of tyre rubber indicates that reusing the material for originally intended (or related) purposes is the preferred option, both environmentally and economically.
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